1552.08.14 – FRA PAOLO SARPI

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CHI E' STATO PAOLO SARPI?

(tratto da wikipedia: clicca qui )
Paolo Sarpi (Venezia, 14 agosto 1552 – Venezia, 15 gennaio 1623) è stato un religioso, teologo, storico e scienziato dell'Ordine dei Servi di Maria.
Teologo, astronomo, matematico, fisico, anatomista, letterato e polemista, fu tanto versato in molteplici campi dello scibile umano da essere definito da Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente «Oracolo del secolo» Autore della celebre Istoria del Concilio tridentino, subito messa all'Indice, fu fermo oppositore della Chiesa cattolica, difendendo le prerogative della Repubblica veneziana, colpita da l'interdetto di Paolo V. 
Rifiutò di presentarsi di fronte all'Inquisizione romana che intendeva processarlo e subì un grave attentato che si sospettò essere stato organizzato dalla Curia romana, che negò tuttavia ogni responsabilità.
In quel tempo Sarpi ricevette la visita dell'ex-luterano ed erudito tedesco Kaspar Schoppe, molto intimo dei segreti affari della Curia romana, il quale gli confidò che «il papa, come gran prencipe, ha longhe le mani, e che per tenersi da lui gravemente offeso non poteva succedergli se non male, e che se sino a quell'ora avesse voluto farlo ammazzare, non gli mancavano mezzi.
Ma che il pensiero del papa era averlo vivo nelle mani e farlo levare sin a Venezia e condurlo a Roma, offerendosi egli, quando volesse, di trattare la sua riconciliazione, e con qual onore avesse saputo desiderare; asserendo d'aver in carico anco molte trattazioni co' prencipi alemanni protestanti e la loro conversione».
Lo Schoppe, ambiguo provocatore, intendeva convincere il frate a mettersi nelle mani dell'Inquisizione come miglior partito che il Sarpi potesse prendere, tanto «parvero strane le due proposte di far ammazzare o prender vivo il padre», ma i disegni omicidi erano reali: il 5 ottobre 1607, «circa le 23 ore, ritornando il padre al suo convento di San Marco a Santa Fosca, nel calare la parte del ponte verso le fondamenta, fu assaltato da cinque assassini, parte facendo scorta e parte l'essecuzione, e restò l'innocente padre ferito di tre stilettate, due nel collo et una nella faccia, ch'entrava all'orecchia destra et usciva per apunto a quella vallicella ch'è tra il naso e la destra guancia, non avendo potuto l'assassino cavar fuori lo stillo per aver passato l'osso, il quale restò piantato e molto storto». 
I sicari, fuggendo, trovarono rifugio nella casa del nunzio pontificio e la sera s'imbarcarono per Ravenna, da dove proseguirono per Ancona e di qui raggiunsero Roma.
Si conoscono i loro nomi: l'esecutore materiale dell'attentato fu Rodolfo Poma, già mercante veneziano, poi trasferitosi a Napoli e di qui a Roma, dove divenne intimo del cardinale segretario di Stato Scipione Borghese e dello stesso Paolo V.
Fu coadiuvato da tre uomini d'arme, tali Alessandro Parrasio, Giovanni da Firenze e Pasquale da Bitonto, mentre «la spia, o guida, fu un prete, Michiel Viti bergamasco, solito offiziare in Santa Trinità di Venezia, che non lasciò dubitare quanti mesi precedessero questo bel effetto prima che fosse mandato alla luce; poi che questo prete la quadragesima antecedente, sotto specie d'aver gusto delle predicazioni del padre maestro Fulgenzio, andava ogni mattina in convento de' servi alla porta del pulpito, che risponde alla parte di dentro, e cortesemente trattava con lui, ricercandolo anco di qualche dubbio di coscienza.
E continuò di poi sempre a salutarlo et anco andar in convento a visitarlo, parlandogli sempre di cose spettanti all'anima».
Il pugnale non aveva tuttavia leso organi vitali e il Sarpi riuscì a sopravvivere; il noto chirurgo Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente, che l'operò, disse di non aver mai medicato una ferita più strana, rispondendo allora Sarpi con la famosa espressione: «eppure il mondo vuole che sia data stilo Romanae Curiae».
Le conseguenze furono la rottura della mascella e vistose cicatrici nel volto.
Il 27 ottobre 1607 il Senato, dichiarando il Sarpi «persona di prestante dottrina, di gran valore e virtù», gli concede una casa in piazza San Marco ove possa risiedere con il Micanzio e altri frati, e una sovvenzione affinché possa acquistare una barca e provvedere alla sua sicurezza personale. Sarpi rifiutò la casa ma si servì da allora di una barca che gli evitasse i pericolosi tragitti a piedi per le calli veneziane.
Poco più di un anno dopo, nel gennaio del 1609, fu sventato un secondo attentato, ordito, sembra su mandato del cardinale Lanfranco Margotti, da due frati serviti, Giovanni Francesco da Perugia e Antonio da Viterbo, i quali, fatta una copia della chiave della camera di Sarpi, «volevano secretamente introdurre nel monasterio due o più sicarii e la notte trucidare l'innocente padre».
Ai primi giorni del 1623 si ammalò gravemente, e morì il 15 gennaio.
Secondo la versione ufficiale l'8 gennaio, sebbene sfinito, volle alzarsi per il mattutino, come al solito, e celebrare la Messa.
La mattina del 12 gennaio, fatto chiamare il priore del convento, lo pregò che lo raccomandasse alle preghiere dei confratelli e che gli portasse il Viatico.
Gli consegnò tutte le cose concesse a suo uso. Si fece vestire, si confessò e passò il resto del mattino facendosi leggere da fra Fulgenzio e da Fra Marco i Salmi e la Passione di Cristo narrata dagli Evangelisti.
Gli fu quindi amministrato dal priore, alla presenza della Comunità, il Viatico.
Il 14 mattina fu visitato dal medico che gli disse che aveva più poche ore di vita.
Egli, sorridendo, rispose: Sia benedetto Dio!
A me piace ciò che a Lui piace.
Col suo aiuto faremo bene anche quest'ultima azione (quella di morire).
Fu udito ripetere più volte, con soddisfazione: Orsù, andiamo dove Dio ci chiama!.
Secondo alcuni le sue ultime parole sarebbero state: Esto perpetua, riferendosi a Venezia (v. Bianchi-Giovini, 846, p. 340-344).
Esistono tuttavia altre versioni della sua morte che lo fanno apparire più vicino al culto protestante.
 

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