VENEZIA E LA DIFESA DI CANDIA NEL 600

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L'assedio dell'isola di Candia della metà del Seicento fu forse l'ultimo episodio in cui i Veneziani si impegnarono militarmente a fondo a difesa del loro impero contro i Turchi.
Non si trattò di un episodio marginale, ma di una guerra che impegnò le risorse del Paese per un'intera generazione.
Dopo, la potenza militare di Venezia decade inesorabilmente.
"Nella guerra di Creta Venezia vinse la maggior parte delle battaglie marittime, ma non riuscì a impedire che i Turchi si impadronissero dell'isola.
Gli strateghi veneziani si erano resi conto da un pezzo che Creta non poteva essere difesa dalle basi locali.
Bisognava far leva sulla potenza marittima per intercettare l'invasore o per distruggerne le linee di comunicazione.
Quando fu chiaro che l'obbiettivo turco era Creta e non Malta, i Veneziani mobilitarono rapidamente una flotta formidabile, a cui si aggiunsero navi di Malta, degli Stati pontifici, di Napoli e della Toscana; ognuno di questi Stati mandò saltuariamente contingenti di cinque o sei galere.
Tutti i crociati o i corsari cristiani si sentirono minacciati dall'attacco turco a Creta, e le squadre che essi erano soliti allestire per incrociare nel Levante operarono durante la guerra in congiunzione con la flotta militare veneziana; almeno i contingenti pontificio e maltese vennero quasi ogni estate.
Ma questi contributi, se rafforzarono gli effettivi, crearono complicazioni nel comando e ne indebolirono l'efficienza.
Nel 1645 l'ammiraglio pontificio chiese e ottenne la carica di comandante supremo; ma chiunque fosse il capo, ogni decisione era sottoposta a consigli di guerra che davano luogo ad aspri contrasti. IL MONDO CRISTIANO NEL 600
Le forze cristiane adunate nel 1645 raggiungevano un totale di 60-70 galere, 4 galeazze e circa 36 galeoni, un insieme certamente in grado di tener testa alla flotta d'invasione turca.
(A DESTRA IL MONDO CRISTIANO NEL 600)
Ma la disparità di pareri, le condizioni meteorologiche poco propizie e l'irresolutezza nell'azione impedirono di sferrare un colpo decisivo contro gli invasori in quell'anno come nel successivo, quando il comando supremo era in mano a un Veneziano.
I Turchi ricevettero rinforzi e presto attaccarono la capitale dell'isola, Candia.
Nei ventiquattro anni di guerra che seguirono, la guida e il morale della marina veneziana migliorarono in modo nettissimo.
Sul mare i Veneziani furono generalmente all'offensiva, cercando battaglia senza esitazione anche in condizioni decisamente sfavorevoli e ottenendo parecchie vittorie clamorose: nell'Egeo centrale nel 1651, e nei Dardanelli nel 1655 e 1656.
Questa seconda battaglia dei Dardanelli è definita dallo Hammer, storico dell'Impero ottomano, «la più dura sconfitta subita dai Turchi dopo Lepanto».
Venezia aveva un sufficiente dominio dei mari per ottenere quasi ogni anno tributi e reclute da molte isole dell'Egeo; ma non poté impedire che i Turchi facessero affluire rifornimenti all'esercito di Creta.
I Turchi generalmente evitavano le battaglie navali, tranne quando erano necessarie per far passare questi rifornimenti.
Negli anni 1650 i Veneziani si concentrarono sul blocco dei Dardanelli, e inflissero gravi danni alle flotte turche che cercavano di aprirsi una via di uscita; ma i prevalenti venti del nord e la forte corrente che veniva dal Mar Nero impedivano un blocco permanente, e d'altra parte i Turchi organizzarono convogli di rinforzi anche da Chio, Rodi, Alessandria e Monemvasia (Malvasia).
Nel 1666 un grosso sforzo veneziano per conquistare la base turca di Canea non ebbe successo, e l'anno successivo l'arrivo di ingenti rinforzi al comando del Gran visir suggellò la sorte di Candia.
La strenua difesa ventennale della fortezza di Candia suscitava ormai l'ammirazione di tutta Europa, come una storia romantica di assalti e sortite, mine e contromine, rivellini perduti e riconquistati.
«Mai una fortezza, nell'Impero ottomano o altrove, era stata oggetto di tanti combattimenti, ed era costata tanto sangue e tanto denaro» (Hammer).
Offrire il proprio contributo alla causa della cristianità diventò un gesto di moda.
Dopo la fine della lunga guerra tra Spagna e Francia (1659) gli Stati cristiani dettero maggiore ascolto agli appelli papali per l'invio di uomini e denaro in aiuto a Venezia.
I giovani nobili partivano per dar prova del loro coraggio; molti si arruolavano individualmente sotto la bandiera veneziana, altri venivano in compagnie mandate dai loro governi, specialmente compagnie francesi, che si batterono valorosamente unite alle schiere pontificie per non interferire con la tradizionale alleanza del re di Francia con il Turco.
Dopo una sortita particolarmente ardimentosa e rovinosa del contingente francese, che allora rientrò subito in patria, il Capitano generale veneziano Francesco Morosini concluse nel Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet Pascha - Gran Visir dell'Impero Ottomano1669 un accordo per la resa di Candia, che consentiva ai Veneziani di ritirarsi con l'onore delle armi e di mantenere a Creta piccole basi di vitale importanza navale, e inoltre conservava a Venezia due isole dell'Egeo (Tine e Cerigo) e il territorio conquistato in Dalmazia.
(a destra ritratto di Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet Pascha che fu anche Gran Visir dell'Impero Ottomano)
Sebbene molto criticato dapprima per aver accettato come inevitabile la perdita di Candia, Francesco Morosini fu rieletto Capitano generale quindici anni più tardi, quando Venezia si preparava alla riscossa.
Nel 1683 Austriaci e Polacchi avevano respinto i Turchi dalle mura di Vienna.
Insieme al pontefice, essi invitarono allora Venezia a unirsi a loro per stroncare il nemico comune.
A Venezia il partito favorevole alla guerra sostenne che se l'invito non veniva accolto, la Serenissima non avrebbe trovato alleati se il Turco tornava ad attaccarla.
Più tardi alla coalizione antiturca si aggiunse la Russia, che si batteva per avere accesso al Mar Nero, e tredici maestri carpentieri dell'Arsenale veneziano furono inviati in quel Paese per aiutarlo a costruire una flotta di galere.
I Turchi, indeboliti, cedettero terreno.
In quattro anni Francesco Morosini riconquistò tutto ciò che Venezia aveva perduto nello Ionio e in Morea, e anche qualcosa di più.
Nel settembre 1687 era all'attacco di Atene; uno dei suoi cannonieri infilò un proiettile nel tetto del IL PARTENONE AD ATENEPartenone, facendo esplodere le munizioni che i Turchi avevano ammassato nel tempio.
La parziale distruzione della meraviglia dell'arte attica, rimasta in piedi per più di duemila anni, non contribuì molto al successo della campagna.
Dopo un tentativo contro Negroponte e un'epidemia scoppiata nella flotta, il Morosini decise di ritirarsi in Morea, la cui conquista nel frattempo gli aveva guadagnato tanta popolarità da farlo eleggere doge.
Alla sua morte (1693) egli riuniva nelle sue mani il dogato e la rinnovata carica di Capitano generale.
Nessuno dei successori di Francesco Morosini aggiunse nulla alle sue conquiste, anche se nei cinque o sei anni successivi molte grosse flotte furono inviate nell'Egeo.
Quando gli alleati di Venezia misero fine alla guerra con il trattato di Karlowitz (1699), Venezia conservò ciò che il Morosini le aveva conquistato. FRANCESCO MOROSINI
Seguì per la Serenissima un quindicennio di pace, mentre il resto dell'Europa occidentale combatteva un'aspra guerra per la successione spagnola, guerra che lasciò l'Austria in posizione di predominio in Italia ma troppo esaurita, pensavano i Turchi, per sfidarli di nuovo: tanto più che nel frattempo essi si erano rafforzati con una vittoria sulla Russia nel Mar Nero.
(A SINISTRA FRANCESCO MOROSINI)
Confidando di cogliere Venezia priva di alleati, i Turchi nel 1714 intrapresero la riconquista della Morea e in breve tempo la portarono a termine.
Nessuno dei comandanti delle fortezze veneziane della regione oppose molta resistenza prima di arrendersi, e la flotta della Serenissima si ritirò di fronte a una flotta turca due volte più numerosa.
Quando però i Turchi procedettero ad attaccare Corfu la resistenza veneziana si irrigidì.
Altre flotte cristiane, in particolare contingenti portoghesi e pontifici, vennero in suo aiuto, e l'imperatore d'Austria intervenne nel conflitto.
Una vittoria austriaca in Ungheria (1716) contribuì a salvare Corfù.
I Veneziani ripresero l'offensiva per mare, e si sentirono traditi quando gli Austriaci li costrinsero a fare la pace, accettando la perdita della Morea e rinunciando a incorporare nella Dalmazia veneziana la base corsara di Dulcigno (Ulciny).
In queste ultime guerre turche le operazioni navali ebbero di rado effetti decisivi, ma quanto a proporzioni furono tutt'altro che trascurabili.
Nella seconda guerra di Morea, per esempio, mentre le galere e le truppe terrestri attaccavano Dulcigno, i velieri veneziani erano stazionati al largo della punta meridionale della Grecia, per tenere a bada la flotta turca.
Nell'adempiere a questa missione, la flotta veneziana subì gravi perdite nella battaglia di Capo Matapan (1718).
Le flotte impegnate in quello scontro furono molto maggiori di quelle coinvolte, alla fine del secolo, nella famosa vittoria di Nelson sui Francesi nella baia di Abukir, come appare dal raffronto seguente:
Matapan: Veneziani, 26 navi, 1800 cannoni, perdite 1824 uomini; Turchi, 36 navi, 2000 cannoni; le perdite non si conoscono con precisione, ma il fatto che i Turchi evitassero di rinnovare lo scontro fa pensare che esse furono almeno pari a quelle dei Veneziani.
Abukir: Inglesi, 14 navi, 1212 cannoni, perdite 895 uomini; Francesi, 14 navi, 1206 cannoni, perdite stimate 3000 uomini.
È vero bensì che prima di Abukir si combatterono sugli oceani battaglie di maggiori proporzioni: nel 1690 i Francesi concentrarono 75 navi per battere gli Inglesi a Beachy Head, e gli Inglesi ne usarono all'incirca altrettante l'anno dopo per riconquistare il controllo del mare"
(F.C.. Lane, Storia di Venezia, Einaudi, Torino 1978)
 
 

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